Thermal evaporation typically uses a resistive heat source to evaporate a solid material in a vacuum environment. The evaporated material that reaches the substrate condenses to form the thin film. The more common use of thermal evaporation involves the deposition of single metallic materials such as silver or aluminum to be used as electrical contacts. In more complex applications (functional films) the co-deposition of several components can be achieved via careful control of the temperature of individual crucibles, for examples when depositing Cu-In-Ga-Se alloys.
MVSystems provides standalone evaporation systems and modular units incorporated to its cluster tools.